April 20, 2021

How Naps Can Keep You Happy and Healthy

策略性的小睡可以让我们恢复精神,减轻压力,甚至激发创造力

This article first appeared on Next Avenue.

I love napping. 我曾在颠簸颠簸的纽约地铁上睡着过. I once slept through the clanging bells of a college fire drill. My greatest pleasure is swinging in a hammock, 温柔地让我忘却,直到我像一个心满意足的婴儿一样睡着.

Credit: Getty

“想睡就睡是退休后最大的乐趣之一.”

畅销书作家Sarah Ban Breathnach写道:“我们睡觉是为了给身体充电. We nap to care for our souls.” And the best news is that not only do naps feel good, but they are (mostly) good for you.

2014年国家睡眠基金会睡眠世界杯开户指数报告称,53%的成年人定期午睡, defined as napping at least once every week. Men tend to nap more often than women. 老年人和退休人员也更经常午睡.

There are several types of naps:

  • Recovery naps, sometimes called replacement naps, make up for lost sleep.
  • Planned prophylactic naps在你预计失眠时服用,为深夜外出做准备.
  • Appetitive naps (my favorite) are taken just for the sheer joy of it!

Why Nap?

小睡可以增加能量,提高反应时间,减少白天的困倦. 它们降低压力,帮助调节情绪,减少焦虑和抑郁,诱导放松. They enhance creativity, increase productivity, 提高解决问题的能力,提高许多认知能力.

“Naps are beneficial for memory because the brain is ‘offline,’ not taking in any new information, yet is actively consolidating memories,” says Marissa Bowman, 她是匹兹堡大学临床世界杯开户心理学项目的博士生. Her research focuses on sleep disturbances.

The Science of Sleep

There are four stages of sleep.

Stage one, the transition between wakefulness and sleep, is only five to 10 minutes, during which time eye movements and heart rate begin to slow.

ln stage two, which lasts for 15 to 25 minutes, brain waves and heart rate decrease further, and body temperature begins to drop. 但这仍然是一种很容易被唤醒的轻睡眠.

During stage three, 45 to 90 minutes after falling asleep, 血压下降,大脑开始产生被称为δ波的较慢脑电波. If someone (or an alarm clock) wakes you during this stage, you’re probably going to be groggy, disoriented and cranky, a state called “sleep inertia.”

“I find that a nap is like rebooting a computer. The stopping and starting again is both relaxing and energizing.”

Stage four也被称为快速眼动睡眠(REM),在睡眠开始后约75 - 90分钟达到. 在快速眼动睡眠中,心率和血压上升,眼球运动增加,会做梦.

According to the National Institutes of Health, 60岁以上的人慢波(深度)睡眠时间减少,快速眼动睡眠时间缩短, 这是大脑自我补充、处理和储存信息的关键阶段.

随着年龄的增长,我们会有更多的夜晚醒来和更早的早晨醒来的情况. Can you compensate for this with a daytime nap? 《世界杯开户网》上的一项研究发现, depending on its length and timing, a nap can help to increase total sleep time 不影响夜间睡眠质量或持续时间,并提供可衡量的认知益处.

Wondering how long a snooze to take? “Power naps,” 20 to 30 minutes long, allow you to wake up refreshed and rejuvenated, giving you added pep on a day when you’re dragging.

鲍曼说:“有时被称为‘战略性小睡’的持续时间和时机很重要。. “我们想把午睡对昼夜节律和夜间睡眠能力的影响降到最低. The best time is usually early afternoon, 当身体被设定为需要睡眠时,你可能会自然地感到警觉性下降.”

Are Naps Good for Our Health?

至于午睡如何影响世界杯开户和心血管功能,目前的证据相互矛盾.

几项研究表明,白天打盹与各种原因导致的死亡风险增加有关. 但是,鲍曼说,你需要考虑到午睡时间和时间的差异.

“If a nap occurs too early or too late in the day, this can affect circadian rhythms, as well as the ability to fall asleep and stay asleep at night, both of which can be related to cardiovascular disease,” she says.

2019年发表在《世界杯开户网》上的一项研究发现,每周小睡一到两次的人也会这样 a lower risk of cardiovascular disease 相比之下,没有发现与午睡更频繁或午睡时间更长有关.

欧洲心脏病学会2020年的一项研究发现,午睡时间超过60分钟与34%的风险有关 higher risk of cardiovascular disease. When nighttime sleep was taken into account, however, 只有那些每晚睡眠超过6小时的人才会出现长时间的睡眠问题.

睡眠时间缩短,尤其是小于30到45分钟的睡眠 not 对于夜间睡眠不足的人来说,这种风险确实可能改善心脏世界杯开户.

一些研究表明,过度睡眠和白天小睡与较高水平的c反应蛋白有关, 这是一种全身炎症的标志,可能与心脏病和其他疾病有关. Other studies suggest that naps can improve immune function.

显然,还需要更多关于世界杯开户和午睡之间关系的研究.

The Joy of Napping

For Fred Popper, 69, of Concord, Mass., most of his naps are accidental. “我可能正在看电影或电视上的好东西,在我意识到之前, I’m snoring away,” says Popper, an artist, photographer and retired graphic designer.

“有时候,我小睡20分钟,感觉很好,”他补充道. “But other times, 我已经睡了一个小时或更多了,我一直睡到迷糊为止, ‘What day is it?’ feeling goes away. 不过,我想什么时候睡就什么时候睡,这是退休后最大的乐趣之一.”

68岁的艾丽西亚·施莱辛格是一名退休的注册护士和来自北卡罗来纳州小颈的艺术家.Y., 她承认自己大多数晚上都睡不好觉,并发现小睡对身体和情感都有好处.

“When I’m overtired and my thoughts begin to get all jumbled up, I find that a nap is like rebooting a computer,” she says. “The stopping and starting again is both relaxing and energizing, 它能补充我的能量,这样我就能做我必须做的事情来度过这一天.”

午睡还可以帮助施莱辛格摆脱日常的压力,停止有时困扰她的过度思考. “Napping makes me happy for all kinds of reasons,” she says.

 

 

barbra consentino, writer

Barbra Williams Cosentino 注册护士Barbra Williams Cosentino是纽约州皇后区的一名心理治疗师.Y., and a freelance writer whose essays and articles on health, parenting and mental health have appeared in the New York Times, Medscape, BabyCenter and many other national and online publications. Read More